The three-year Lectionary that many Catholics and Protestants hear in public worship gives us a great variety of Holy Scripture.
Yet, it doesn’t tell the whole story.
My series Forbidden Bible Verses — ones the Lectionary editors and their clergy omit — examines the passages we do not hear in church. These missing verses are also Essential Bible Verses, ones we should study with care and attention. Often, we find that they carry difficult messages and warnings.
12 And all were amazed and perplexed, saying to one another, “What does this mean?” 13 But others mocking said, “They are filled with new wine.”
This is the first set of verses in Acts which have been omitted from three-year Lectionary.
More’s the pity. In the Gospels, there are two mentions of people accusing Jesus of being a drunkard. Neither of them is in the Lectionary, either.
In 2015, I wrote about Matthew 11:16-19 which ends with this observation from Jesus about His critics (emphases mine):
19 The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, ‘Look at him! A glutton and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!’ Yet wisdom is justified by her deeds.”[a]
In 2013, I wrote about the parallel passage, Luke 7:31-35:
34The Son of Man has come eating and drinking, and you say, ‘Look at him! A glutton and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!’ 35Yet wisdom is justified by all her children.”
Remember that last sentences in each, as they also relate to the Holy Spirit’s purpose in the account of the first Pentecost in Acts 2.
Matthew Henry points out:
if they called the Master of the house a wine-bibber, no marvel if they so call those of his household.
Before we go further, let’s look at the authorship of Acts and why it was written. St Luke wrote it, addressing it to his friend Theophilus, a benefactor of his but, as this book was dedicated to him, also a pupil (Acts 1:1):
In the first book, O Theophilus, I have dealt with all that Jesus began to do and teach,
3it seemed good to me also, having followed all things closely for some time past, to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus, 4that you may have certainty concerning the things you have been taught.
Note that Luke addresses him as ‘most excellent’ in the Gospel but only as ‘O’ in Acts. Henry offers the following possibilities to explain the differences:
not that he had lost his excellency, nor that it was diminished and become less illustrious; but perhaps he had now quitted his place, whatever it was, for the sake of which that title was given him,–or he was now grown into years, and despised such titles of respect more than he had done,–or Luke was grown more intimate with him, and therefore could address him with the more freedom.
In any event, the dedication of important books to individuals was normal, however, their content is just as pertinent to us when it comes to Scripture:
It was usual with the ancients, both Christian and heathen writers, thus to inscribe their writings to some particular persons. But the directing some of the books of the scripture so is an intimation to each of us to receive them as if directed to us in particular, to us by name; for whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning.
As for Luke, you can find out more about him here. In that post, I cited John MacArthur who says that Luke was not only a physician, but also a historian, a theologian and a pastor.
In his introduction to Acts, MacArthur tells us:
Luke is the author of Acts. And Luke was closely associated with the Apostles from about the time of Jesus’ death, around 30 A.D., to about 60 or 63 A.D. where evidently he penned this book. And in those intervening 30‑plus years, as Luke travelled in the companionship of the Apostles, he penned what was going on. And the story of the book of Acts is the beginning of the church at Jerusalem and its explosion until it reaches the capital of the world, one of those uttermost parts of the earth, the city of Rome. And in a thirty‑ year period, under the tremendous power of the Spirit of God, the church exploded around that area of the world and reached the capital of the world in the form of the Apostle Paul in his arrival in the city of Rome. And in those 30 years, Luke presents to us how it was that the Spirit of God superintended, controlled and empowered the expansion of the church.
Luke wanted to communicate to Theophilus how and why the Church developed so that the Roman would realise that Christianity represented truth and that Christians were good people, not rebels who wanted to overturn civil and political order:
in writing to this man, he is evidently‑‑as one of his purposes‑‑attempting to commend Christianity to the Roman world. The Romans had a rather exclusive view of religion, you worship the emperor. And they had some other gods that were involved, but emperor worship was the key thing. They were somewhat tolerant although their tolerance ran a little thin and they became great persecutors of Christianity. And in this particular book, Luke directs the attention of the Romans from time to time to the character of Christians, that is that they are not bad citizens but rather they are very loyal and they are very law abiding. He also directs the Romans’ attention to the fact that many other Roman officials have treated the Christians with great care and have even given good testimonies about Christians. So it has kind of as a background thought the commending of Christianity to the Roman world, lest the Romans be threatened that all of these people were rebels who were going to overthrow the pax Romana or the Roman peace.
However, Luke also meant his writings for the Jews, who felt the Church was exclusive to them. Luke wanted to prove to them that it was also meant for the Gentiles:
… there was this kind of latent problem with the new‑born church as it was to unfold and that is that the Jews would think that it belonged primarily to them and the Gentiles were second‑class citizens. Particularly might this have happened in view of what happened when the church began at Jerusalem as the Spirit of God came in cloven tongues of fire and came upon them, they were baptized in the Holy Spirit, they began to speak in different languages. Now then this gave them a certain exclusive kind of feeling and that’s why when Peter came to the Jerusalem Council in Acts 15, he was so shocked when he announced to the Jerusalem council, “Guys, you’ll never believe it, the same thing happened to the Gentiles that happened to us, can you believe that?” In other words, the point is that God wanted them to make sure the Gentiles and the Jews were on an equal basis in the church.
the main purpose of Acts is stated as such in Acts 1 verse 8. And if you’ll look at that for a moment you’ll see the main character summarized very clearly. Verse 8, “But ye shall receive power after the Holy Spirit has come upon you,” and here’s really the purpose, “ye shall be witnesses unto Me both in Jerusalem, in all Judea and in Samaria and in the utter most part of the earth.” Now there you have the outline of the book of Acts. The book of Acts begins when the Spirit came. They received power. Immediately they became…witnesses declaring the wonderful works of God. They began where? In Jerusalem. Then the book of Acts moves and they went to Judea. Then they went to Samaria, finally they went to the world. They wound up in the capital city of Rome and that’s exactly the outline of the book of Acts given in the eighth verse. It begins right there and it sweeps clear through to the end of the book.
The purpose then of the book as Luke states it there is to show the story of the spread of Christianity empowered and energized by the Holy Spirit throughout the world.
For those unfamiliar with Acts, Luke begins with Jesus’s Ascension on Mount Olivet (Acts 1). Then, Peter discussed Judas’s death, where Luke inserted a parenthetical explanation:
18 (Now this man acquired a field with the reward of his wickedness, and falling headlong[d] he burst open in the middle and all his bowels gushed out. 19 And it became known to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that the field was called in their own language Akeldama, that is, Field of Blood.)
Peter, speaking before the Apostles, the women closest to Jesus as well as Jesus’s mother and brothers, cited Psalm 109:8 in justifying a replacement for Judas. The group nominated Barsabbas (Justus) and Matthias. After praying for guidance and casting lots, they chose Matthias to replace Judas.
Most of Acts 2 describes the first Pentecost. The 70 followers of Jesus were together in one house. These verses help to shed light on today’s verses, 12 and 13:
2 And suddenly there came from heaven a sound like a mighty rushing wind, and it filled the entire house where they were sitting. 3 And divided tongues as of fire appeared to them and rested[a] on each one of them. 4 And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance.
5 Now there were dwelling in Jerusalem Jews, devout men from every nation under heaven. 6 And at this sound the multitude came together, and they were bewildered, because each one was hearing them speak in his own language.
Note that the tongues were real languages, not random babbling. And, using those divinely given languages, the 70 spoke about the wondrous works of Almighty God — i.e. in a Jewish scriptural context — and were understood by those present who spoke those respective foreign tongues.
I can’t emphasise that enough.
I always wondered how there was a crowd of Jews nearby at the time. John MacArthur says that even the date of Pentecost was divinely ordained. It happened 50 days after Passover, which was the Feast of Harvest of the first fruits of the season. God commanded this feast to Moses in Leviticus 23. MacArthur explains:
by divine timing, the fact of the birth of the church and the baptism of the Holy Spirit occurring on Pentecost fulfills the prophecy of Leviticus 23 in which we see the Feast of Harvest as a preview or a type of the church and the baptism of the Spirit … As Christ, for example, fulfilled the Passover feast by dying on the Passover, as He fulfilled the First Fruits feast by rising on the First Fruits feast day, so the Spirit and the birth of the church occurs on Pentecost to fulfill the meaning of that feast from Leviticus 23. You see, these three feasts are types or pictures prophetically of what is to come. And Jesus died on the right day, He rose on the right day and the church was born on the right day because Leviticus 23 outlined it in the pictures of the feasts, which we went into last time. So when it says that “when the day of Pentecost was fully come,” that is the key to interpreting the passage. In other words, this has a very basic direct significance for a special day in the calendar of Israel.
He goes on to say that this was part of God’s divine plan and has nothing to do with us today other than to know why Pentecost occurred when it did:
for people to come along and say that the Spirit of God comes upon an individual as in Acts when the preparation is right and when the individual does the right things is to misinterpret the passage. The Spirit came on a specific day designed by God, the day of Pentecost. It had absolutely nothing to do with the believers there, nothing to do with them meeting any qualifications or any requirements. They were there and it happened because God sovereignly designed it to happen.
Because of the importance of this feast, devout Jews living in other lands went up to Jerusalem to worship and offer the requisite sacrifices.
When they heard the disciples speak in their own languages, they were confused but amazed (verse 12). They marvelled. Remember that everyone considered Galileans to be uneducated, uncultured bumpkins with a particular accent. Matthew 26:73 says that in Peter’s last denial of Jesus, people identified him by his speech:
73 After a little while the bystanders came up and said to Peter, “Certainly you too are one of them, for your accent betrays you.”
MacArthur explains the divine plan:
First of all, the Spirit sent a sound like a wind just to make sure they got gathered together. He got them all together, then they had this marvelous miracle of speaking in languages just to make sure He really messed up their minds. And, you see, when they then began to speak the wonderful works of God, then the Jews only had two choices. Either this was a miracle of the devil, or it’s a miracle of God. But when they started praising God, that eliminated one of those choices. And so what the Spirit was doing was narrowing the whole thing down to the admission that this is of God.
Matthew Henry tells us that the derisive accusation of drunkenness (verse 13) probably came from the Jewish hierarchy who knew Jesus, because the foreigners present marvelled at people who had never travelled outside their own region, yet could speak their language fluently.
The Jewish hierarchy didn’t understand those languages to begin with and put it down to heavy drinking during the daytime:
As when they resolved not to believe the finger of the Spirit in Christ’s miracles, they turned it off with this, “He casteth out devils by compact with the prince of the devils;” so, when they resolved not to believe the voice of the Spirit in the apostles’ preaching, they turned it off with this, These men are full of new wine.
A simple rationalisation for them. See how their hard-heartedness continued even after Jesus rose from the dead.
Isn’t it interesting how with all the proof in the world some people still aren’t convinced? You know, I’ve made up my mind; don’t confuse me with facts (laughter). Isn’t it amazing how you can give them all the evidence there is and if they don’t want to believe it, they won’t believe it. That’s why we say salvation not an issue of dialogue; it’s an issue of sovereignty. It has not to do with how well we argue; it has to do with how the Spirit draws and breaks down the barriers. And so here are some who have seen all of this and they’re not about to give in and say it’s God, not any way. They just block their minds out, which are blinded by Satan.
That’s why we can say only so much to atheists. As MacArthur points out, good argumentation has nothing to do with conversion. Conversion is the work of the Holy Spirit. That’s why the best thing we can do for atheists is to pray for divine intervention leading to faith through grace.
Continuing on with Acts 2, Peter no sooner heard the remark about drunkenness than he stood up to preach the Gospel.
The first conversion story after the first Pentecost continues in the New Year.
Next time: Acts 2:33-35